Vulnerability Disclosure Report (VDR)


Communicate known and unknown vulnerabilities affecting components and services

Known vulnerabilities inherited from the use of third-party and open source software can be communicated with CycloneDX. Previously unknown vulnerabilities affecting both components and services may also be disclosed using CycloneDX, making it ideal for Vulnerability Disclosure Report (VDR) use cases.

NIST SP 800-161: Cybersecurity Supply Chain Risk Management Practices for Systems and Organizations defines Vulnerability Disclosure Reports (VDR) as a best practice and recommends VDRs include:

  • Analysis and findings describing the impact (or lack thereof) that a reported vulnerability has on a component or product
  • Plans to address the vulnerability
  • Signing the VDR with a trusted, verifiable, private key that includes a timestamp indicating the date and time of the VDR signature
  • Publishing the VDR to a secure portal

CycloneDX exceeds the data field requirements defined in ISO/IEC 29147:2018 for vulnerability disclosure information and provides a simple path for including Vulnerability Exploitability eXchange (VEX) information.

Abstract of VDR and VEX data represented in a BOM

Independent BOM and VDR BOM

CycloneDX fully supports all NIST recommendations for VDR including:

Independent BOM and VDR Document

With CycloneDX, it is possible to reference a component, service, or vulnerability inside a BOM from other systems or other BOMs. This deep-linking capability is referred to as BOM-Link and is a formally registered URN.

Learn more about how CycloneDX makes use of BOM-Link.

CycloneDX VDR BOMs can also be used with alternative SBOM formats such as SPDX, but without the tight integration or support of an IETF standard for linkage. Vendor support may vary.

BOM With Embedded VDR

BOM With Embedded VDR

CycloneDX also supports embedding VDR information inside a BOM, thus having a single artifact that describes both inventory and VDR data. There are several uses for embedding VDR data including:

  • Audit use cases where inventory and vulnerability data need to be captured at a specific point in time
  • Automated security tools may opt to create a single BOM with embedded vulnerability or VDR data for convenience and portability

High-Level Object Model

CycloneDX Object Model Swimlane


BOMs demonstrating VDR capabilities can be found at

See also

Additional Capabilities

CycloneDX Supporters

Contrast Security
Ecma International
Fortress Information Security
Lockheed Martin